English

Short English Policy

Aims

To create a school/classroom climate in which children feel that what they have to say and offer is important. We realise that speaking, listening, reading and writing are intricately linked.

 

In the area of speaking and listening our aims are -

  • to enable children to express their ideas logically, coherently and appropriately
  • to gain pleasure by talking and listening
  • to improve the quality and accuracy of listening
  • to encourage the idea that talk is worthwhile, using talk/discussion as a tool for learning
  • to help children work with others in a group
  • to develop co-operation and self-confidence
  • to develop the ability to speak in a variety of situations
  • to respond to language diversity in the classroom and to encourage language awareness
  • to listen with patience, attention and understanding to other speakers
  • to have respect for the languages, accents and dialogues of others and to be able to detect the richness it adds to the language

 

In the area of reading our aims are to enable pupils

  • to read fluently and with understanding a range of different kinds of material including those which reflect our multi-cultural society
  • to have confidence in their capacities as readers
  • to find pleasure in and be voluntary users of reading for a variety of purposes
  • to see that reading is necessary for their personal lives, for their learning throughout the curriculum and for the requirements of living and working in society

 

In the area of writing our aims are

  • to give children opportunities to write coherently in many varied forms for a range of purposes including I.T.
  • to show children that writing is different from speaking and requires different treatment
  • to use spelling, punctuation and syntax accurately and with confidence
  • to achieve a working knowledge of its structure and of the variety of ways in which meaning is made
  • to foster an enjoyment of writing in all its creative forms
  • to enable children to have a clear, fluent style of handwriting in which the letters are joined
  • to enable children to write legibly and quickly when required

 

Marking

  • AfL comment marking to improve learning must be done – positively for encouragement
  • Targets for future learning must be given
  • Pupils must be aware of their levels and targets
  • APP assessment/marking to be done termly
  • Edited and improved work should be evident in the books

 

General

  • Writing walls outside classrooms must be up-to-date and display work of an excellent standard for the child and exemplify good writing.
  • Spelling tests are done weekly – poor effort can result in pupils attending work club to practice.
  • Handwriting is practiced weekly and as often as is required for pupils to achieve a good level of cursive writing.
  • The re-writing of work is expected of any pupil that falls below their own standard of work – e.g. punctuation, handwriting or fit for purpose in any form of writing.

 


Programme of Study – Word Reading

 

Year 1

Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words

Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes

Read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught

Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word

Read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings

Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs

Read words with contractions [for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll], and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s)

Read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words

Re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading

 

Year 2

Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent

Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes

Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above

Read words containing common suffixes

Read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word

Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered

Read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation

Re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading

 

Years 3 and 4

Pupils should be taught to:

Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in the Programme of Study - Spelling, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet

Read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word

 

Years 5 and 6

Pupils should be taught to:

Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in the Programme of Study - Spelling, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.

 

 

Programme of Study - Comprehension

 

Year 1

Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:

  • listening to and discussing a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
  • being encouraged to link what they read or hear read to their own experiences
  • becoming very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics
  • recognising and joining in with predictable phrases
  • learning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heart
  • discussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known

Understand both the books they can already read accurately and fluently and those they listen to by:

  • drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
  • checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading
  • discussing the significance of the title and events
  • making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done
  • predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far

Participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say

Explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them.

 

Year 2

Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:

  • listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
  • discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related
  • becoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales
  • being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways
  • recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry
  • discussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary
  • discussing their favourite words and phrases
  • continuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear

Understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:

  • drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
  • checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading
  • making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done
  • answering and asking questions
  • predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far

Participate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say

Explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves.

 

Years 3 and 4

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

  • listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
  • reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
  • using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read
  • increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally
  • identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action
  • discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
  • recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]

Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:

  • checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context
  • asking questions to improve their understanding of a text
  • drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
  • predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
  • identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these
  • identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning

Retrieve and record information from non-fiction

Participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.

 

Years 5 and 6

Maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

  • continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
  • reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
  • increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions
  • recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices
  • identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing
  • making comparisons within and across books
  • learning a wider range of poetry by heart
  • preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience

Understand what they read by:

  • checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
  • asking questions to improve their understanding
  • drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
  • predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
  • summarising the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
  • identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning

Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader

Distinguish between statements of fact and opinion

Retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction

Participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously

Explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary

Provide reasoned justifications for their views.

 

 

Programme of Study – Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

 

 

Year 1

Word

Regular plural noun suffixes –s or –es [for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the noun

Suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper)

How the prefix un– changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives [negation, for example, unkind, or undoing: untie the boat]

Sentence

How words can combine to make sentences

Joining words and joining clauses using and

Text

Sequencing sentences to form short narratives

Punctuation

Separation of words with spaces

Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

Capital letters for names and for the personal pronoun I

Terminology for pupils

letter, capital letter

word, singular, plural

sentence

punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark

Year 2

Word

Formation of nouns using suffixes such as –ness, –er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman]

Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as –ful, –less

(A fuller list of suffixes can be found on page 56 in the year 2 spelling section in English Appendix 1)

Use of the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and the use of –ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs

Sentence

Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but)

Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon]

How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command

Text

Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing

Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting]

Punctuation

Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

Commas to separate items in a list

Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl’s name]

Terminology for pupils

noun, noun phrase

statement, question, exclamation, command

compound, suffix

adjective, adverb, verb

tense (past, present)

apostrophe, comma

Year 3

Word

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes [for example super–, anti–, auto–]

Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel [for example, a rock, an open box]

Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning [for example, solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble]

Sentence

Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions [for example, when, before, after, while, so, because], adverbs [for example, then, next, soon, therefore], or prepositions [for example, before, after, during, in, because of]

Text

Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group related material

Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation

Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past [for example, He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play]

Punctuation

Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech

Terminology for pupils

preposition conjunction

word family, prefix

clause, subordinate clause

direct speech

consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter

inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)

Year 4

Word

The grammatical difference between plural and possessive –s

Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms [for example, we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done]

Sentence

Noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair)

Fronted adverbials [for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.]

Text

Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

Punctuation

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech [for example, a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, “Sit down!”]

Apostrophes to mark plural possession [for example, the girl’s name, the girls’ names]

Use of commas after fronted adverbials

Terminology for pupils

determiner

pronoun, possessive pronoun

adverbial

Year 5

Word

Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes [for example, –ate; –ise; –ify]

Verb prefixes [for example, dis–, de–, mis–, over– and re–]

Sentence

Relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun

Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs [for example, perhaps, surely] or modal verbs [for example, might, should, will, must]

Text

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph [for example, then, after that, this, firstly]

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time [for example, later], place [for example, nearby] and number [for example, secondly] or tense choices [for example, he had seen her before]

Punctuation

Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

Terminology for pupils

modal verb, relative pronoun

relative clause

parenthesis, bracket, dash

cohesion, ambiguity

Year 6

Word

The difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, find out – discover; ask for – request; go in – enter]

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms [for example, big, large, little].

Sentence

Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence [for example, I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)].

The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, the use of question tags: He’s your friend, isn’t he?, or the use of subjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some very formal writing and speech]

Text

Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections [for example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence], and ellipsis

Layout devices [for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text]

Punctuation

Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses [for example, It’s raining; I’m fed up]

Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within lists

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity [for example, man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover]

Terminology for pupils

subject, object

active, passive

synonym, antonym

ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points

 

 

Programme of Study - Spelling

 

Year 1

Revision of Reception Work

All letters of the alphabet and the sounds which they most commonly represent

Consonant digraphs which have been taught and the sounds which they represent

Vowel digraphs which have been taught and the sounds which they represent

The process of segmenting spoken words into sounds before choosing graphemes to represent the sounds

Words with adjacent consonants

Guidance and rules which have been taught

 

Know

Rules

Can Read & Spell

The sounds /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ spelt ff, ll, ss, zz and ck

The /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ sounds are usually spelt as ff, ll, ss, zz and ck if they come straight after a single vowel letter in short words. Exceptions: if, pal, us, bus, yes.

off, well, miss, buzz, back

The /ŋ/ sound spelt n before k

 

bank, think, honk, sunk

Division of words into syllables

Each syllable is like a ‘beat’ in the spoken word. Words of more than one syllable often have an unstressed syllable in which the vowel sound is unclear.

pocket, rabbit, carrot, thunder, sunset

-tch

The /tʃ/ sound is usually spelt as tch if it comes straight after a single vowel letter. Exceptions: rich, which, much, such.

catch, fetch, kitchen, notch, hutch

The /v/ sound at the end of words

English words hardly ever end with the letter v, so if a word ends with a /v/ sound, the letter e usually needs to be added after the ‘v’.

have, live, give

Adding s and es to words (plural of nouns and the third person singular of verbs)

If the ending sounds like /s/ or /z/, it is spelt as –s. If the ending sounds like /ɪz/ and forms an extra syllable or ‘beat’ in the word, it is spelt as –es.

cats, dogs, spends, rocks, thanks, catches

Adding the endings –ing, –ed and –er to verbs where no change is needed to the root word

–ing and –er always add an extra syllable to the word and –ed sometimes does.

The past tense of some verbs may sound as if it ends in /ɪd/ (extra syllable), /d/ or /t/ (no extra syllable), but all these endings are spelt –ed.

If the verb ends in two consonant letters (the same or different), the ending is simply added on.

hunting, hunted, hunter, buzzing, buzzed, buzzer, jumping, jumped, jumper

Adding –er and –est to adjectives where no change is needed to the root word

As with verbs (see above), if the adjective ends in two consonant letters (the same or different), the ending is simply added on.

grander, grandest, fresher, freshest, quicker, quickest

ai, oi

The digraphs ai and oi are virtually never used at the end of English words.

rain, wait, train, paid, afraid
oil, join, coin, point, soil

ay, oy

ay and oy are used for those sounds at the end of words and at the end of syllables.

day, play, say, way, stay
boy, toy, enjoy, annoy

a–e

 

made, came, same, take, safe

e–e

 

these, theme, complete

i–e

 

five, ride, like, time, side

o–e

 

home, those, woke, hope, hole

u–e

Both the /u:/ and /ju:/ (‘oo’ and ‘yoo’) sounds can be spelt as u–e.

June, rule, rude, use, tube, tune

ar

 

car, start, park, arm, garden

ee

 

see, tree, green, meet, week

ea (/i:/)

 

sea, dream, meat, each, read (present tense)

ea (/ɛ/)

 

head, bread, meant, instead, read (past tense)

er (/ɜ:/)

 

(stressed sound): her, term, verb, person

er (/ə/)

 

(unstressed schwa sound): better, under, summer, winter, sister

ir

 

girl, bird, shirt, first, third

ur

 

turn, hurt, church, burst, Thursday

oo (/u:/)

Very few words end with the letters oo, although the few that do are often words that primary children in year 1 will encounter, for example, zoo

food, pool, moon, zoo, soon

oo (/ʊ/)

 

book, took, foot, wood, good

oa

The digraph oa is very rare at the end of an English word.

boat, coat, road, coach, goal

oe

 

toe, goes

ou

The only common English word ending in ou is you.

out, about, mouth, around, sound

ow (/aʊ/)

ow (/əʊ/)

ue

ew

Both the /u:/ and /ju:/ (‘oo’ and ‘yoo’) sounds can be spelt as u–e, ue and ew. If words end in the /oo/ sound, ue and ew are more common spellings than oo.

now, how, brown, down, town
own, blow, snow, grow, show
blue, clue, true, rescue, Tuesday
new, few, grew, flew, drew, threw

ie (/aɪ/)

 

lie, tie, pie, cried, tried, dried

ie (/i:/)

 

chief, field, thief

igh

 

high, night, light, bright, right

or

 

for, short, born, horse, morning

ore

 

more, score, before, wore, shore

aw

 

saw, draw, yawn, crawl

au

 

author, August, dinosaur, astronaut

air

 

air, fair, pair, hair, chair

ear

 

dear, hear, beard, near, year

ear (/ɛə/)

 

bear, pear, wear

are (/ɛə/)

 

bare, dare, care, share, scared

Words ending –y (/i:/ or /ɪ/)

 

very, happy, funny, party, family

New consonant spellings ph and wh

The /f/ sound is not usually spelt as ph in short everyday words (e.g. fat, fill, fun).

dolphin, alphabet, phonics, elephant, when, where, which, wheel, while

Using k for the /k/ sound

The /k/ sound is spelt as k rather than as c before e, i and y.

Kent, sketch, kit, skin, frisky

Adding the prefix –un

The prefix un– is added to the beginning of a word without any change to the spelling of the root word.

unhappy, undo, unload, unfair, unlock

Compound words

Compound words are two words joined together. Each part of the longer word is spelt as it would be if it were on its own.

football, playground, farmyard, bedroom, blackberry

Common exception words

Pupils’ attention should be drawn to the grapheme-phoneme correspondences that do and do not fit in with what has been taught so far.

the, a, do, to, today, of, said, says, are, were, was, is, his, has, I, you, your, they, be, he, me, she, we, no, go, so, by, my, here, there, where, love, come, some, one, once, ask, friend, school, put, push, pull, full, house, our – and/or others, according to the programme used

 

Year 2

 

Know

Rules

Can Read & Spell

The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and y

The letter j is never used for the /dʒ/ sound at the end of English words.

At the end of a word, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt –dge straight after the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ sounds (sometimes called ‘short’ vowels).

After all other sounds, whether vowels or consonants, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt as –ge at the end of a word.

In other positions in words, the /dʒ/ sound is often (but not always) spelt as g before e, i, and y. The /dʒ/ sound is always spelt as j before a, o and u.



badge, edge, bridge, dodge, fudge


age, huge, change, charge, bulge, village

gem, giant, magic, giraffe, energy
jacket, jar, jog, join, adjust

The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y

 

race, ice, cell, city, fancy

The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words

The ‘k’ and ‘g’ at the beginning of these words was sounded hundreds of years ago.

knock, know, knee, gnat, gnaw

The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words

This spelling probably also reflects an old pronunciation.

write, written, wrote, wrong, wrap

The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –le at the end of words

The –le spelling is the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words.

table, apple, bottle, little, middle

The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –el at the end of words

The –el spelling is much less common than –le.

The –el spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and more often than not after s.

camel, tunnel, squirrel, travel, towel, tinsel

The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –al at the end of words

Not many nouns end in –al, but many adjectives do.

metal, pedal, capital, hospital, animal

Words ending –il

There are not many of these words.

pencil, fossil, nostril

The /aɪ/ sound spelt –y at the end of words

This is by far the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words.

cry, fly, dry, try, reply, July

Adding –es to nouns and verbs ending in
–y

The y is changed to i before –es is added.

flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carries

Adding –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in –y with a consonant before it

The y is changed to i before –ed, –er and –est are added, but not before –ing as this would result in ii. The only ordinary words with ii are skiing and taxiing.

copied, copier, happier, happiest, cried, replied

…but copying, crying, replying

Adding the endings –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before it

The –e at the end of the root word is dropped before –ing, –ed, –er,
–est, –y or any other suffix beginning with a vowel letter is added. Exception: being.

hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shiny

Adding –ing, –ed,
–er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter

The last consonant letter of the root word is doubled to keep the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/ and /ʌ/ sound (i.e. to keep the vowel ‘short’).

Exception: The letter ‘x’ is never doubled: mixing, mixed, boxer, sixes.

patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runny

The /ɔ:/ sound spelt a before l and ll

The /ɔ:/ sound (‘or’) is usually spelt as a before l and ll.

all, ball, call, walk, talk, always

The /ʌ/ sound spelt o

 

other, mother, brother, nothing, Monday

The /i:/ sound spelt
–ey

The plural of these words is formed by the addition of –s (donkeys, monkeys, etc.).

key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valley

The /ɒ/ sound spelt a after w and qu

a is the most common spelling for the /ɒ/ (‘hot’) sound after w and qu.

want, watch, wander, quantity, squash

The /ɜ:/ sound spelt or after w

There are not many of these words.

word, work, worm, world, worth

The /ɔ:/ sound spelt ar after w

There are not many of these words.

war, warm, towards

The /ʒ/ sound spelt s

 

television, treasure, usual

The suffixes –ment,
–ness, –ful , –less and –ly

If a suffix starts with a consonant letter, it is added straight on to most root words without any change to the last letter of those words.

Exceptions:

(1) argument

(2) root words ending in –y with a consonant before it but only if the root word has more than one syllable.

enjoyment, sadness, careful, playful, hopeless, plainness (plain + ness), badly

 

 

merriment, happiness, plentiful, penniless, happily

Contractions

In contractions, the apostrophe shows where a letter or letters would be if the words were written in full (e.g. can’t – cannot).

It’s means it is (e.g. It’s raining) or sometimes it has (e.g. It’s been raining), but it’s is never used for the possessive.

can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’ll

The possessive apostrophe (singular nouns)

 

Megan’s, Ravi’s, the girl’s, the child’s, the man’s

Words ending in –tion

 

station, fiction, motion, national, section

Homophones and near-homophones

It is important to know the difference in meaning between homophones.

there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee, blue/blew, night/knight

Common exception words

Some words are exceptions in some accents but not in others – e.g. past, last, fast, path and bath are not exceptions in accents where the a in these words is pronounced /æ/, as in cat.

Great, break and steak are the only common words where the /eɪ/ sound is spelt ea.

door, floor, poor, because, find, kind, mind, behind, child, children*, wild, climb, most, only, both, old, cold, gold, hold, told, every, everybody, even, great, break, steak, pretty, beautiful, after, fast, last, past, father, class, grass, pass, plant, path, bath, hour, move, prove, improve, sure, sugar, eye, could, should, would, who, whole, any, many, clothes, busy, people, water, again, half, money, Mr, Mrs, parents, Christmas – and/or others according to programme used.

Note: ‘children’ is not an exception to what has been taught so far but is included because of its relationship with ‘child’.

 

Year 3 & 4

 

Know

Rules

Can Read & Spell

Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words of more than one syllable

If the last syllable of a word is stressed and ends with one consonant letter which has just one vowel letter before it, the final consonant letter is doubled before any ending beginning with a vowel letter is added. The consonant letter is not doubled if the syllable is unstressed.

forgetting, forgotten, beginning, beginner, prefer, preferred, gardening, gardener, limiting, limited, limitation

The /ɪ/ sound spelt y elsewhere than at the end of words

These words should be learnt as needed.

myth, gym, Egypt, pyramid, mystery

The /ʌ/ sound spelt ou

These words should be learnt as needed.

young, touch, double, trouble, country

More prefixes

Most prefixes are added to the beginning of root words without any changes in spelling, but see in– below.

Like un–, the prefixes dis– and mis– have negative meanings.

The prefix in– can mean both ‘not’ and ‘in’/‘into’. In the words given here it means ‘not’.

dis–: disappoint, disagree, disobey

 

mis–: misbehave, mislead, misspell (mis + spell)

in–: inactive, incorrect

 

Before a root word starting with l, in– becomes il.

illegal, illegible

 

Before a root word starting with m or p, in– becomes im–.

immature, immortal, impossible, impatient, imperfect

 

Before a root word starting with r, in– becomes ir–.

irregular, irrelevant, irresponsible

 

re– means ‘again’ or ‘back’.

re–: redo, refresh, return, reappear, redecorate

 

sub– means ‘under’.

sub–: subdivide, subheading, submarine, submerge

 

inter– means ‘between’ or ‘among’.

inter–: interact, intercity, international, interrelated (inter + related)

 

super– means ‘above’.

super–: supermarket, superman, superstar

 

anti– means ‘against’.

anti–: antiseptic, anti-clockwise, antisocial

 

auto– means ‘self’ or ‘own’.

auto–: autobiography, autograph

The suffix –ation

The suffix –ation is added to verbs to form nouns. The rules already learnt still apply.

information, adoration, sensation, preparation, admiration

The suffix –ly

The suffix –ly is added to an adjective to form an adverb. The rules already learnt still apply.

The suffix –ly starts with a consonant letter, so it is added straight on to most root words.

sadly, completely, usually (usual + ly), finally (final + ly), comically (comical + ly)

 

Exceptions:

(1) If the root word ends in –y with a consonant letter before it, the y is changed to i, but only if the root word has more than one syllable.

 

happily, angrily

 

(2) If the root word ends with –le, the –le is changed to –ly. 

gently, simply, humbly, nobly

 

(3) If the root word ends with –ic,
–ally is added rather than just –ly, except in the word publicly.

basically, frantically, dramatically

 

(4) The words truly, duly, wholly.

 

Words with endings sounding like /ʒə/ or /tʃə/

The ending sounding like /ʒə/ is always spelt –sure.

The ending sounding like /tʃə/ is often spelt –ture, but check that the word is not a root word ending in (t)ch with an er ending – e.g. teacher, catcher, richer, stretcher.

measure, treasure, pleasure, enclosure

creature, furniture, picture, nature, adventure

Endings which sound like /ʒən/

If the ending sounds like /ʒən/, it is spelt as –sion.

division, invasion, confusion, decision, collision, television

The suffix –ous

Sometimes the root word is obvious and the usual rules apply for adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters.

Sometimes there is no obvious root word.

–our is changed to –or before –ous is added.

A final ‘e’ of the root word must be kept if the /dʒ/ sound of ‘g’ is to be kept.

If there is an /i:/ sound before the
–ous ending, it is usually spelt as i, but a few words have e.

poisonous, dangerous, mountainous, famous, various

tremendous, enormous, jealous

humorous, glamorous, vigorous

courageous, outrageous

serious, obvious, curious
hideous, spontaneous, courteous

Endings which sound like /ʃən/, spelt –tion, –sion, –ssion, –cian

Strictly speaking, the suffixes are –ion and –ian. Clues about whether to put t, s, ss or c before these suffixes often come from the last letter or letters of the root word.

–tion is the most common spelling. It is used if the root word ends in t or te.

–ssion is used if the root word ends in ss or –mit.
–sion is used if the root word ends in d or se.
Exceptions: attend – attention, intend – intention.

–cian is used if the root word ends in c or cs.

invention, injection, action, hesitation, completion

expression, discussion, confession, permission, admission

 

expansion, extension, comprehension, tension

 

musician, electrician, magician, politician, mathematician

Words with the /k/ sound spelt ch (Greek in origin)

 

scheme, chorus, chemist, echo, character

Words with the /ʃ/ sound spelt ch (mostly French in origin)

 

chef, chalet, machine, brochure

Words ending with the /g/ sound spelt –gue and the /k/ sound spelt –que (French in origin)

 

league, tongue, antique, unique

Words with the /s/ sound spelt sc (Latin in origin)

In the Latin words from which these words come, the Romans probably pronounced the c and the k as two sounds rather than one – /s/ /k/.

science, scene, discipline, fascinate, crescent

Words with the /eɪ/ sound spelt ei, eigh, or ey

 

vein, weigh, eight, neighbour, they, obey

Possessive apostrophe with plural words

The apostrophe is placed after the plural form of the word; –s is not added if the plural already ends in
–s, but is added if the plural does not end in –s (i.e. is an irregular plural – e.g. children’s).

girls’, boys’, babies’, children’s, men’s, mice’s

(Note: singular proper nouns ending in an s use the ’s suffix e.g. Cyprus’s population)

Know

Rules

Can Read & Spell

Homophones and near-homophones

 

accept/except, affect/effect, ball/bawl, berry/bury, brake/break, fair/fare, grate/great, groan/grown, here/hear, heel/heal/he’ll, knot/not, mail/male, main/mane, meat/meet, medal/meddle, missed/mist, peace/piece, plain/plane, rain/rein/reign, scene/seen, weather/whether, whose/who’s

 

Year 5 & 6

 

Know

Rules

Can Read & Spell

Endings which sound like /ʃəs/ spelt –cious or –tious

Not many common words end like this.

If the root word ends in –ce, the /ʃ/ sound is usually spelt as c – e.g. vice – vicious, grace – gracious, space – spacious, malice – malicious.

Exception: anxious.

vicious, precious, conscious, delicious, malicious, suspicious

ambitious, cautious, fictitious, infectious, nutritious

Endings which sound like /ʃəl/

–cial is common after a vowel letter and –tial after a consonant letter, but there are some exceptions.

Exceptions: initial, financial, commercial, provincial (the spelling of the last three is clearly related to finance, commerce and province).

official, special, artificial, partial, confidential, essential

Words ending in –ant,
–ance/–ancy,
–ent,
–ence/–ency

Use –ant and –ance/–ancy if there is a related word with a /æ/ or /eɪ/ sound in the right position; –ation endings are often a clue.
Use –ent and –ence/–ency after soft c (/s/ sound), soft g (/dʒ/ sound) and qu, or if there is a related word with a clear /ɛ/ sound in the right position.

There are many words, however, where the above guidance does not help. These words just have to be learnt.

observant, observance, (observation), expectant (expectation), hesitant, hesitancy (hesitation), tolerant, tolerance (toleration), substance (substantial)

innocent, innocence, decent, decency, frequent, frequency, confident, confidence (confidential)

assistant, assistance, obedient, obedience, independent, independence

Words ending in –able and
–ible

Words ending in –ably and
–ibly

The –able/–ably endings are far more common than the –ible/–ibly endings.

As with –ant and –ance/–ancy, the –able ending is used if there is a related word ending in –ation.

If the –able ending is added to a word ending in –ce or –ge, the e after the c or g must be kept as those letters would otherwise have their ‘hard’ sounds (as in cap and gap) before the a of the –able ending.

The –able ending is usually but not always used if a complete root word can be heard before it, even if there is no related word ending in –ation. The first five examples opposite are obvious; in reliable, the complete word rely is heard, but the y changes to i in accordance with the rule.

The –ible ending is common if a complete root word can’t be heard before it but it also sometimes occurs when a complete word can be heard (e.g. sensible).

adorable/adorably (adoration),

applicable/applicably (application), considerable/considerably (consideration), tolerable/tolerably (toleration)

changeable, noticeable, forcible, legible




dependable, comfortable, understandable, reasonable, enjoyable, reliable




possible/possibly, horrible/horribly, terrible/terribly, visible/visibly, incredible/incredibly, sensible/sensibly

Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words ending in –fer

The r is doubled if the –fer is still stressed when the ending is added.

The r is not doubled if the –fer is no longer stressed.

referring, referred, referral, preferring, preferred, transferring, transferred

reference, referee, preference, transference

Use of the hyphen

Hyphens can be used to join a prefix to a root word, especially if the prefix ends in a vowel letter and the root word also begins with one.

co-ordinate, re-enter,
co-operate, co-own

Words with the /i:/ sound spelt ei after c

The ‘i before e except after c’ rule applies to words where the sound spelt by ei is /i:/.

Exceptions: protein, caffeine, seize (and either and neither if pronounced with an initial /i:/ sound).

deceive, conceive, receive, perceive, ceiling

Words containing the letter-string ough

ough is one of the trickiest spellings in English – it can be used to spell a number of different sounds.

ought, bought, thought, nought, brought, fought

rough, tough, enough

cough

though, although, dough

through

thorough, borough

plough, bough

Words with ‘silent’ letters (i.e. letters whose presence cannot be predicted from the pronunciation of the word)

Some letters which are no longer sounded used to be sounded hundreds of years ago: e.g. in knight, there was a /k/ sound before the /n/, and the gh used to represent the sound that ‘ch’ now represents in the Scottish word loch.

doubt, island, lamb, solemn, thistle, knight

Homophones and other words that are often confused

In the pairs of words opposite, nouns end –ce and verbs end –se. Advice and advise provide a useful clue as the word advise (verb) is pronounced with a /z/ sound – which could not be spelt c.

 

More examples:

aisle: a gangway between seats (in a church, train, plane).

advice/advise

device/devise

licence/license

practice/practise

prophecy/prophesy

 

farther: further
father: a male parent

guessed: past tense of the verb

 

isle: an island.

aloud: out loud.
allowed: permitted.

affect: usually a verb (e.g. The weather may affect our plans).
effect: usually a noun (e.g. It may have an effect on our plans). If a verb, it means ‘bring about’ (e.g. He will effect changes in the running of the business).

altar: a table-like piece of furniture in a church.
alter: to change.

ascent: the act of ascending (going up).
assent: to agree/agreement (verb and noun).

bridal: to do with a bride at a wedding.
bridle: reins etc. for controlling a horse.

cereal: made from grain (e.g. breakfast cereal).
serial: adjective from the noun series – a succession of things one after the other.

compliment: to make nice remarks about someone (verb) or the remark that is made (noun).
complement: related to the word complete – to make something complete or more complete (e.g. her scarf complemented her outfit).

guess
guest: visitor

heard: past tense of the verb hear
herd: a group of animals

led: past tense of the verb lead
lead: present tense of that verb, or else the metal which is very heavy (as heavy as lead)

morning: before noon
mourning: grieving for someone who has died

past: noun or adjective referring to a previous time (e.g. In the past) or preposition or adverb showing place (e.g. he walked past me)
passed: past tense of the verb ‘pass’ (e.g. I passed him in the road)

precede: go in front of or before
proceed: go on

Homophones and other words that are often confused (continued)

descent: the act of descending (going down).
dissent: to disagree/disagreement (verb and noun).

desert: as a noun – a barren place (stress on first syllable); as a verb – to abandon (stress on second syllable)
dessert: (stress on second syllable) a sweet course after the main course of a meal.

draft: noun – a first attempt at writing something; verb – to make the first attempt; also, to draw in someone (e.g. to draft in extra help)
draught: a current of air.

principal: adjective – most important (e.g. principal ballerina) noun – important person (e.g. principal of a college)
principle: basic truth or belief

profit: money that is made in selling things
prophet: someone who foretells the future

stationary: not moving
stationery: paper, envelopes etc.

steal: take something that does not belong to you
steel: metal

wary: cautious
weary: tired

who’s: contraction of who is or who has
whose: belonging to someone (e.g. Whose jacket is that?)

 

Year 3/4 Word List

accident(ally)

actual(ly)

address

answer

appear

arrive

believe

bicycle

breath

breathe

build

busy/business

calendar

caught

centre

century

certain

circle

complete

consider

continue

decide

describe

different

difficult

 

disappear

early

earth

eight/eighth

enough

exercise

experience

experiment

extreme

famous

favourite

February

forward(s)

fruit

grammar

group

guard

guide

heard

heart

height

history

imagine

increase

important

 

interest

island

knowledge

learn

length

library

material

medicine

mention

minute

natural

naughty

notice

occasion(ally)

often

opposite

ordinary

particular

peculiar

perhaps

popular

position

possess(ion)

possible

potatoes

 

pressure

probably

promise

purpose

quarter

question

recent

regular

reign

remember

sentence

separate

special

straight

strange

strength

suppose

surprise

therefore

though/although

thought

through

various

weight

woman/women

 

 

Year 4/5 Word List

accommodate

accompany

according

achieve

aggressive

amateur

ancient

apparent

appreciate

attached

available

average

awkward

bargain

bruise

category

cemetery

committee

communicate

community

competition

conscience*

conscious*

controversy

convenience

correspond

criticise (critic + ise)

curiosity

definite

desperate

determined

develop

dictionary

disastrous

embarrass

environment

equip (–ped, –ment)

especially

exaggerate

excellent

existence

explanation

familiar

foreign

forty

frequently

government

guarantee

harass

hindrance

identity

immediate(ly)

individual

interfere

interrupt

language

leisure

lightning

marvellous

mischievous

muscle

necessary

neighbour

nuisance

occupy

occur

opportunity

parliament

persuade

physical

prejudice

privilege

profession

programme

pronunciation

queue

recognise

recommend

relevant

restaurant

rhyme

rhythm

sacrifice

secretary

shoulder

signature

sincere(ly)

soldier

stomach

sufficient

suggest

symbol

system

temperature

thorough

twelfth

variety

vegetable

vehicle

yacht

 

Programme of study - Writing – transcription

 

Year 1

Spell:

  • words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught
  • common exception words
  • the days of the week

Name the letters of the alphabet:

  • naming the letters of the alphabet in order
  • using letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound

Add prefixes and suffixes:

  • using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbs
  • using the prefix un–
  • using –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words [for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest]

Apply simple spelling rules and guidance, as listed in the Programme of Study - Spelling

Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far.

 

Year 2

Spell by:

  • segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly
  • learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones
  • learning to spell common exception words
  • learning to spell more words with contracted forms
  • learning the possessive apostrophe (singular) [for example, the girl’s book]
  • distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones

Add suffixes to spell longer words, including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly

Apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in the Programme of Study - Spelling

Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far.

 

Years 3 and 4

Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1)

Spell further homophones

Spell words that are often misspelt the Programme of Study - Spelling

Place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s]

Use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary

Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.

 

Years 5 and 6

Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them

Spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn]

Continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused

Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English Appendix 1

Use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words

Use the first three or four letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary

Use a thesaurus.

 

Programme of Study – Writing Composition

 

Year 1

Write sentences by:

  • saying out loud what they are going to write about
  • composing a sentence orally before writing it
  • sequencing sentences to form short narratives
  • re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense

Discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils

Read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher.

 

Year 2

Develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by:

  • writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)
  • writing about real events
  • writing poetry
  • writing for different purposes

Consider what they are going to write before beginning by:

  • planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about
  • writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary
  • encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence

Make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by:

  • evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils
  • re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form
  • proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation [for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly]

Read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.

 

Years 3 and 4

Plan their writing by:

  • discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar
  • discussing and recording ideas

Draft and write by:

  • composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures Programme of Study – Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation
  • organising paragraphs around a theme
  • in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot
  • in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]

Evaluate and edit by:

  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements
  • proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences

Proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

Read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.

 

Years 5 and 6

Plan their writing by:

  • identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own
  • noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary
  • in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed

Draft and write by:

  • selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning
  • in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action
  • précising longer passages
  • using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs
  • using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]

Evaluate and edit by:

  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing
  • proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning
  • ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing
  • ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register

Proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

Perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear.