Science

Short Science Policy

Introduction

Science is concerned with asking questions and finding ways of answering in order to understand the world around us.  Every child needs a practical understanding of science which goes beyond the mere acquisition of scientific knowledge.  It involves children finding out about something through their own actions and making sense of the result through their own thinking.

Aims and Objectives

  • To develop an understanding of the world around them through the processes of scientific enquiry and the development of knowledge
  • To encourage children to raise questions and learn how to investigate and explore these using both first hand experiences and secondary sources
  • To help children understand the nature of scientific ideas and to obtain and test the evidence for them
  • To help children communicate their ideas using appropriate scientific vocabulary
  • To help children to recognise and assess risks and hazards to themselves and to others when working with living things and materials and to take action to control them

Organisation and Methodology

Science will be taught for 1½ hours per week at KS1 and 2 hours per week at KS2.

Science Programme of Study is used as the scheme of work. Within the Scheme of work each child will carry out at least one investigation a week allowing them to:

  • Make their own decisions
  • Make statements/questions they can test
  • Make decisions on what to change, measure and what to keep the same.
  • Put a sequence of investigative skills into a strategy for obtaining a solution.
  • Refine, develop and evaluate ideas.

 Children will also be given opportunities to:

  • Work independently and in groups
  • Be involved in tasks of varying duration
  • Undertake teacher directed and child initiated tasks

Undertake a range of activities designed to enhance their scientific knowledge and understanding including:

  • Planning experimental work
  • Obtaining, considering and presenting evidence
  • Researching using books, I.T. and other secondary sources
  • To use cross curricular knowledge
  • Using I.T. where appropriate
  • Evaluate their own work (AFL)
  • Take part in investigative activities both in the local and wider environment
  • Undertake trips and visits where appropriate

Assessment and Recording

Assessment is ongoing and occurs as teachers observe the children and what they produce; this helps and informs future planning.  The teacher will adjust the task for individuals, offer support or include extra elements to stretch the more able.

Formal assessment takes place at the beginning and at the end of each Unit; the children undertake a test from the Rising Stars Science assessment scheme.

Records are kept in the form of teacher’s planning, children’s work, observation notes and Rising Stars end of unit record sheets.

Targets and comments by teachers will be placed in pupils books to show how they can progress further.

All records of a child’s progress in Science will be passed on to the next class teacher.

 

Programme of Study – Science

 

YEAR 1

Working scientifically

  • asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  • observing closely, using simple equipment
  • performing simple tests
  • identifying and classifying
  • using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions
  • gathering and recording data to help in answering questions.

 

Unit 1.1

Plants

Vocabulary

Wild, garden, branch, flower, root, stem, seeds, seedlings, plants, leaf, weed, no living, alive, not alive, dead, healthy, deciduous, evergreen.

  • identify and name a variety of common plants, including garden plants, wild plants and trees, and those classified as deciduous and evergreen
  • identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including roots, stem/trunk, leaves and flowers.

(QCA Unit 1B - underlined not covered in the QCA.)

 

Unit 1.2

Animals, including humans

Vocabulary

sense, eye, sight, see, ear, hearing, smell, nose, touch, feel leg, wing, arm, beak alive, living, not alive, human, animal ,birds, fish amphibians, reptiles, mammals, invertebrates, carnivores, herbivores, omnivores

  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and invertebrates
  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and invertebrates, and including pets)
  • identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body and say which part of the body is associated with each sense.

(QCA Unit 1A - underlined not covered in the QCA)

 

Unit 1.3.

Everyday materials

Vocabulary

metal, plastic, wood, paper, glass, clay, rock, fabric, sand hard, soft, rough, smooth, shiny, dull, magnetic, transparent, bendy, waterproof, strong,  harder, smoother wood, metal, leather, plastic, clay natural, manufactured, squash, bend, twist, stretch.

  • distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock
  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties
  • find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching.

(QCA Unit 1C , Unit  2D Section 4  - underlined not covered in the QCA)

 

Unit 1.4

Light

Vocabulary

bright, light, dark, black, night, day, reflect, reflective strip ,torch, warning light, Sun, candle, lantern darker/darkest, bright/brighter/brightest transparent, opaque, shadow, block.

  • observe and name a variety of sources of light, including electric lights, flames and the Sun
  • associate shadows with a light source being blocked by something.

(QCA Unit 1d ,Unit 3f Sections 1, 2 & 3- underlined not covered in the QCA )

 

Unit 1.5

Seasonal changes

Vocabulary

Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, season, weather, climate, day, night, sunlight, rain, snow, sleet, hail, thunder, lightning, windy, ice, cold, hot, warm, temperature, clouds

  • observe changes across the four seasons
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies.

(Underlined not in  QCA)

 

YEAR 2

Working scientifically

  • asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  • observing closely, using simple equipment
  • performing simple tests
  • identifying and classifying
  • using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions

gathering and recording data to help in answering questions.

 

Unit 2.1.

All living things and their habitats

Vocabulary

plants, young, reproduce, fertiliser, nutrients, consumer, producer, predator, prey, food chain, habitat, micro habitat

  • explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
  • identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and  how they depend on each other
  • identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including micro-habitats
  • describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food.

(QCA Unit 2B and Unit 6A)

 

Unit 2.2.

Plants

Vocabulary

Seed, bud, stem, roots, flower, shoot, fruit, earth, water, nutrients, sunlight, temperature, weather, cold. hot, life cycle

  • observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
  • find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy.

(QCA Unit 2B)

 

Unit 2.3.

Animals, including humans

Vocabulary

grow, growth, move, have young, reproduce, feed ,diet, variety, germ, healthy/unhealthy, medicines, safety, packaging, exercise, infant, teenager, adult, elderly

  • notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults
  • find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  • describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene.

(QCA Unit 2a)

 

Unit 2.4

Uses of everyday materials

Vocabulary

direction, distance, force further, furthest, fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, higher, friction.

  • identify and compare the uses of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard
  • compare how things move on different surfaces.

(QCA Unit 1c, Unit 2E)

 

Unit 2.5.

Sound

Vocabulary

high, low, loud, quiet, shake, pluck, rattle, ring, silence, direction ,louder, quieter, further away, nearer ,soft/quiet, noise/sound ,low, high, soft.

  • observe and name a variety of sources of sound, noticing that we hear with our ears.
  • recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.

(QCA Unit 1F)

 

YEAR 3

Working scientifically

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

 

Unit 3.1.

Plants

Vocabulary

Life cycle, fertilisation, pollination, seed, fruit, seed dispersal, flower, roots, stem, leaves

  • identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots, stem, leaves and flowers
  • explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant
  • investigate the way in which water is transported within plants
  • explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.

(QCA Unit 3b, Unit 5b and Unit 6a Sections 1 & 2)

 

Unit 3.2.

Animals, including humans

Vocabulary

feed, feeding, growth, activity, vegetables, meat, fish, sugars and starches, fruit, fats, incisor, molar, canine ,diet, root, decay, muscles, ribs, spine, skull, contract, relax, vertebrate contraction, contract, relax

  • identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat
  • identify that humans and some animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

(QCA Unit 3a Sections 1,2,3,4 and Unit 4a)

 

Unit 3.3

Rocks

Vocabulary

slate, marble, chalk, granite, sand, clay, rock, stone, pebble, texture, absorbent

  • compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance and simple physical properties
  • describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within rock
  • recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter.

(QCA Unit 3d – underlined not in QCA)

 

Unit 3.4.

Light

Vocabulary

transparent, opaque, shadow, block, direction, light travels , shortest, highest

  • notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • find patterns that determine the size of shadows.

(QCA Unit 3f)

 

Unit 3.5

Forces and magnets

Vocabulary

iron, copper, aluminium, attract, repel, magnetic, non-magnetic, attraction/attract, repulsion/repel

  • notice that some forces need contact between two objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance
  • observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials
  • describe magnets as having two poles
  • predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing.

(QCA Unit 3e)

 

YEAR 4

Working scientifically

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

Unit 4.1.

All living things

Vocabulary

Nutrition, habitat, condition, organism, predator, prey, producer, consumer, food chain, key, producer, consumer, key

  • identify and name a variety of living things (plants and animals) in the local and wider environment, using classification keys to assign them to groups
  • recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.

(QCA Unit 4b)

 

Unit 4.2.

Animals, including humans

Vocabulary

  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.

(QCA Unit 3a Section 5,6,7,8 and Unit 6a Section 5 & 9 – Underlined not in QCA)

 

Unit 4.3

States of matter

Vocabulary

solid, liquid, melt, freeze, solidify, dissolve, solution, filter, undissolved, dissolved condensation, boiling temperature, state, change of state, water cycle, conditions, solid, liquid, gas condensation/condense, evaporation/evaporate, melting/melt, freezing/freeze, solidification/solidity

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
  • identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.

(QCA Unit4d and 5d)

 

Unit 4.4.

Sound

Vocabulary

pitch, loudness, vibration, muffle, tuning, quiet, soft, noise, sound, loudness, loud, tension, tight, loud and high, loud and low

  • identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it.

(QCA Unit 5f)

 

Unit 4.5.

Electricity

Vocabulary

battery, bulb, buzzer, motor, break, electrical conductor, electrical insulator, metal, plastic

  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.

(QCA Unit 4f)

 

YEAR 5

Working scientifically

  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, and bar and line graphs
  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • using simple models to describe scientific ideas
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

 

Unit 5.1.

All living things

Vocabulary

reproduction, lifecycle, stamen, style, stigma, sepal, petal, ovary, pollen, reproduction/reproduce, germination/germinate, pollination/pollinate, fertilisation/fertilise, dispersal/disperse

  • explain the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird
  • describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals.

(QCA Unit5b – Underlined not covered in QCA)

 

Unit 5.2.

Animals, including humans

Vocabulary

Baby, Puberty, adolescent, teenager, adult, elderly

  • describe the changes as humans develop from birth to old age.

(Not covered in QCA but covered in Sex Education)

 

Unit 5.3.

Properties and changes of materials

Vocabulary

dissolved, undissolved, solution, mixture, evaporates, condense, pure, reversible, irreversible,  

  • compare and group together everyday materials based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
  • understand that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution
  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
  • give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

(QCA Units 6c & 6d)

 

Unit 5.4.

Earth and space

Vocabulary

sphere, revolve, orbit, spin, rotate, axis, sunrise, sunset, north, south, east, west, sphere/spherical, rotate around, rotate on its axis, spin, orbit

  • describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system
  • describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
  • describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night. explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
  • identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces
  • understand that force and motion can be transferred through mechanical devices such as gears, pulleys, levers and springs.

(QCA Unit 5e)

 

YEAR 6

Working scientifically

  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, and bar and line graphs
  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • using simple models to describe scientific ideas
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

 

Unit 6.1.

All living things

Vocabulary

Classification, groups, differences, similarities, keys

  • describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals
  • give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics.

(Not covered in the QCA)

 

Unit 6.2.

Animals including humans

  • identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and explain the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood
  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function
  • describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans.

(Not covered in the QCA)

 

Unit 6.3.

Evolution and inheritance

Vocabulary

Identification keys, evolution, fossils, variation

  • recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago
  • recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.

(Not covered in the QCA)

 

Unit 6.4

Light

Vocabulary

opaque, reflect, reflection, light beam, mirror, light travelling, light source

  • understand that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them, and to predict the size of shadows when the position of the light source changes.

(QCA Unit6f)

 

Unit 6.5

Electricity

Vocabulary

circuit, conductor, insulator, circuit symbol, component, circuit diagram, cell

  • associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram.

(QCA Unit 6G)